Brain drain

By Juan Carlos Rodas Del Castillo - Analyst

From the very existence of the human being, he always looked for better opportunities for his quality of life, hunger was the main engine that forced him to cross boundaries seeking well-being and sustenance for himself and his family. Today and later, will still follow this innate behavior in human character.

up to date, migration is a repetitive and accentuated phenomenon suffered by Latin American countries, but already with methods and goals updated to modern times. Waves of migrants are seen daily on the five continents, all of them escaping from precarious economic situations, unsustainable political situation, lack of freedom and thought, looking for a better future and job stability. In this change of destinies, Bolivians are forced to look beyond their borders, because our countries are mired in underdevelopment, as a country we get closer to 200 years of life, we made very little progress, being poverty and scarcity of sources of employment the common denominator in Central and South America.

I once bumped into a young woman on public transport, I noticed her worried, with a disappointed face, I approached her asking what was her concern about, answered me: "I am undecided whether or not to pursue a master's degree, It is expensive, but I don't know if it is worth investing in more knowledge today "; I asked and answered, why?, "If that leads to better opportunities, better salaries, best positions, it is a great personal and family satisfaction ", her answer was the following and I share with her her opinion, "Today in the country the sacrifice and professional training of youth is not valued", he cited me examples, "In managerial and hierarchical positions in many institutions they put people who do not have solid professional training, or they are not trained in the field that requires a position, many do not have a degree from a university, others did not even attend university classrooms, less master's degrees, so, How am I going to pretend to study more, otherwise it will serve me, they will not give me a place according to my ability and professional training, in the end it will be a bad investment, I think it is better to swear to the political party that governs today to have a safe position, and I will have to resign myself to that, or dedicate myself to informal commerce ", "In other countries they value you, they give you a place according to the academic training, There it is worth studying more and getting doctorates, in our country everything is backwards, i'm fed up, if i could get out of here, I would, why do you think there is so much brain drain, that is why our country does not progress ". Those were his words, I left the young woman with the promise to convey her thought in a Column like this. This dilemma of the young woman surely many young people lived in the country, millions would say throughout our dark America.

Unfortunately, political activism is more valued in our environment, if you did a political campaign of shock and corporal confrontation, you add more points, and that puts you in better possibilities to have a job, until excellent; even if you do not have professional training or if you attended classrooms, you put yourself above people and young people who have a university degree, with masters or doctorates, where professionals with academic training are required.

In the heart of South America, the productive apparatus, industrial and technological is very small and insipient, Apart from that, our governments are given the task of reducing the productive apparatus on behalf of distributing the little income we have more equally, promoting the reduction of private investment and the productive apparatus, this also reduces stable sources of employment, in that sense, fruit of the policies of recent years, currently 8 decade 10 workers are in the informal area, that is the 84,9% of the total workforce, of these, a high percentage do not have work benefits that assure them a pension for their old age due to their status as informal. We also appreciate that same trend in all Latin American countries, for example, in Guatemala 79,00 %, The Savior 69,1%, Paraguay 68,9% of workers are in the informal sector. According to the ILO database, the informal workforce represents more than half of the total number of people employed in at least nine Latin American countries, considering only data available from 2019, for example, in Peru, it is estimated that a 68,4% of workers are informal that year, in Argentina a 49,4%; not so in Uruguay and Chile, where around a quarter of employees carry out paid activities in the informal labor market.

Wrong economic and education policies in the country, are excellent breeding grounds for BRAIN LEAKAGE, Third world and poor countries are the most prone to this phenomenon, being the developed and more advanced countries the recipients of capital, qualified intellectuals and professionals. Do not our rulers think about this type of problems that afflict the population and youth?? Why not develop ambitious policies to improve the economy of our countries, make them attractive to their population and the permanence of those brains and also be those who contribute to the development of their nations?

Lack of recognition and appreciation of the study, academic training and lack of sources of employment, make many people unable to access expected jobs, this makes you choose to think about "running away your brain", wherever you can earn a good salary and have your professional skills recognized. In Bolivia, many students from young people dream of going to another country, they are thinking of ways to get out, they dream of a better future, in opportunities, they saw how their parents lived through hard times, of scarce sources of employment and poorly paid, the best, they were forced to enter those 84,9% informal workers, vast majority of them earn to eat in the day, in street shops or not, crowding the streets of major cities, turning them into Persian markets. The same for young people from more affluent classes, friend, what, according to their way of life, the country will not offer them great possibilities of quality of study, professional and economical, they have more possibilities and means to get out, and they do it via foreign universities or pursue a master's degree.

Bolivia continues to "export" highly qualified professionals, contribute to the growth of other nations, because they did not find adequate shelter in ours. For decades and very accentuated the latter 15 years, there is little or almost no government support for Bolivian professionals, for example, in the field of medicine, for the quality of teaching provided in Bolivia, for our doctors, it is not difficult for them to find a good position abroad, or with their own means to pay for specialties outside the country and emigrate, there they value them very well and invite them to stay, currently many occupy service headquarters, in positions of high medical specialties, many are in stockholm, Madrid, Glasses, Berlin, Roma, Milan; in California, New York, Washington, Texas; there are also in Brazil, in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and others; not just doctors, something very similar happens in other professions, For the respectful treatment I agreed to their quality and vast professional knowledge and pay according to the responsibilities, a large majority do not wish to return to the country.

Due to the acute lack of formal jobs, the administrative apparatuses of the Central Government, Governors and Municipalities, have become one of the few and safe sources of employment, building in them a mass of voters "in crescendo", as a means of maintaining power, disproportionately growing bureaucracy and non-investment expenditures, This is another factor that pushes youth and professionals to seek channels to emigrate..

The 2015, the state selected from 300 Bolivian scientists based in 33 countries, a 50, they live and work in large companies and countries around the world, it would have been worthy that they were in our land working, promoting and creating science, we would enjoy your advances and high knowledge, and that they were recognized, Unfortunately, the state does not give the conditions for them to return, and the talent drain continues, being another reason for our anachronistic underdevelopment. The so-called I Meeting of Bolivian Scientists Abroad, was promoted by the government that year, with the objective of a Technological Scientific "Liberation" of Bolivia with respect to the industrialized countries, on the occasion of the presentation of the Development Plan 2016-2020 of the then government, unfortunately it came to nothing, is one more speech of many of this new wave that afflicts Latin America.

A survey of middle class members, reveals that two out of every three Bolivians in the country, have at least one relative living abroad, of that total in Spain (54%), USA 15%, Argentina 14% Brazil 3%, etc. Luis Moreira, a Bolivian who has been living for 30 years in Argentina, He said: “If Bolivians in the rest of the world could vote, we would elect the president by majority ", he said referring to the large number of migrants abroad. Only in Argentina is it estimated that there are 1.500.000 bolivians, of which some 850.000 They are in the capital and the great Buenos Aires.

There was an Einstein, Austrian, what, due to lack of political and labor stability in his country due to the Second World War, he was forced to leave his country. In our country we have the distinguished international violinist Jaime Laredo, to the virtuous pianist Ana María Vera that I am sure if the country had offered suitable conditions for these two world-class musicians, would have developed and realized their vocation in the country, and they would live among ours. Professor Jaime Escalante who could not find a future and conditions in our country to transmit his knowledge, had to march north too. The United States Postal Service honored this distinguished Bolivian, in the North American country this recognition is an honor reserved only for personalities or icons relevant to the history and culture of that nation, he's already a teaching legend, whose job as a math teacher there, inspired the movie of 1988 “Stand and Deliver”, "Eager to succeed", translated to Spanish, taught at Garfield High School, in Los Angeles, between the 70s and 90s, earned a reputation for teaching, he said to his students, that to a large extent came from very vulnerable social classes, that they could achieve anything as long as they had the "desire", the desire to do and carry them out.

In 1982, thanks to his teaching impetus, 18 of his students passed an Advanced Calculus Test (Advanced Placement Calculus test), a very difficult exam, that only the 2% of high school graduates dared to take it, he moved to the north country in the 60s, without knowing english. he died 2010 and his legacy continues, received several honorary doctorates during his life and posthumously, the Washington Post dedicated a column to him.

We can fill pages and pages with the names of Bolivians who came out and became outstanding professionals, they will continue to leave for better conditions and quality of life that they cannot find in their land. A large number of university students and young women surf the networks every day, hopeful visit pages of foreign universities that offer scholarships, parents support this, well they know that in 20 O 30 years or more the country will continue in the same conditions, and it's better to look outside. The proverb that "No one is a prophet in his land" fits very well..

Just as we have brain drain in the medical field, there are also in the teacher, artistic, musical, business, culinary, etc., etc., the sports area is no exception, this years ago and today deepened with the reduction of 95% of the government budget for athletes, so, some of them take to the streets to beg for support from the population, They sell cakes or do campaigns of all kinds to raise funds for their tickets and tax preparation, others are tempted to represent other countries, because they do not find the support that the country should give them, outside the borders they welcome you with open arms, they welcome you, they finance their preparation, stay and international competitions.